Ј Study and conservation of functional and species diversity of hydrocarbon-oxidizing actinobacteria of natural biocenoses
Ј Scientifically grounded intensification of rehabilitation processes in oil-contaminated ecosystems using Rhodococcus biosurfactants and immobilized rhodococcal cells.
Ј Development of environmentally friendly technologies for desired product synthesis and organic compound transformation using the genofond of the alkanotrophic microorganismsТ collection.
Ј Guaranteed maintenance of the genofondТs diversity of the Regional Specialized Collection of Alkanotrophic Microorganisms (acronym IEGM. WFCC #768, www.iegm.ru/iegmcol/), and its effective application in biotechnology
Х All-Russia Collection of Microorganisms Ц VKM, G.K. Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Pushchino
Realization of the State Programme УBiodiversityФ on creating the Consolidated Catalog of Russian Microbial Collections (1999-2002). All-Russia Collection of Microorganisms (VKM) is the directing agency coordinating the work on creation of the information access system to microbial genetic resources. The e-book of the Consolidated Catalogue of Microbial Cultures Held in Russian Non-medical Collections (http://www.vkm.ru/collections, http://www.sevin.ru/collections) lists 900 well characterized bacterial strains from the IEGM Collection of Alkanotrophic Microorganisms.
Laboratory members greatly appreciate and are thankful to Professor Kalakoutskii L.V., corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Science, for consultancy and countenance in developing the concept of the first Ural collection of microbial resources and organizing its activity.
Х Institute of Technical Chemistry, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm; N.N. Vorozhtsov Institute of Organic Chemistry, RAS Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk
Under the research-technical collaboration agreement on producing valuable pharmaceutical preparations based on available compounds, research is carried out in developing biocatalysts for transformation of sterols of plant origin (β-sitosterol, particularly for production of hydrosterone derivatives); for sulfide oxidation to optically active sulfoxides useful as intermediates for production of up-to-date antimicrobial and anti-tumor drugs.
Х State Pharmaceutical Academy, Perm; A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
Collaborative work on biotechnology for utilization of unsound drugs, i.e. adulterated, rejected and with expired date is carried out. As exemplified by the studies with acetaminophenol (paracetamol) of expired date, actinobacteria of the genera Dietzia, Gordonia and Rhodococcus are investigated for their ability to degrade medically unusable drugs containing phenol hydroxyl groups in their molecules. A mathematical model and a flowchart for the degradation process of paracetamol in the substance form and in pills are developed using immobilized rhodococci cells with pre-induced alkanotrophic metabolism. The research is supported by the Russian Federation Foundation for Basic Research Grants (RFFBR).
Х State University, Perm
On the basis of the laboratory, senior students of the Chair of Microbiology and Immunology, Perm State University, have their practical training; produce term/graduation projects as well as bachelor/master theses.
Х Napier University; Contaminated Land Assessment and Remediation Research Centre (CLARRC), Edinburg, UK
Under the research collaboration agreement, a long-term research in physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology of actinobacteria and their application for environmental protection is carried out. The collaboration resulted in a species differentiation method of the genus Rhodococcus actinobacteria using a species-specific PCR amplification of 16S DNA; investigated mechanisms of synthesis and a novel method for isolation of biosurfactants produced by rhodococci grown on liquid hydrocarbons, and possible use of Rhodococcus biosurfactants for enhancing oil-contaminated soil bioremediation. A rapid method for detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil was developed using UV spectrophotometry at 254 and 288 nm. This method is cost- and time-effective and useful for monitoring of this priority contaminants under field conditions.
The research is supported by the Royal Society Grants (1997-1999); the NATO Science Programme and Cooperation Partners (1999-2000; 2006-2007); Ford Motors Conservation and Environmental Grants (2001-2002) and INTAS Grants (International Association for the promotion of cooperation with scientists from the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union (2002-2003; 2004-2005). British partners are N. Christofi, Prof., Director, Pollution Research Unit, School of Life Sciences, Napier University; J.C. Philp, PhD, Dr., Napier University; D. Aw., PhD, Dr.; S.A. Dunbar, Dr., Napier University; C.J. Cunningham, Dr., Director, CLARRC; T. Peshkur, Dr, CLARRC; P. Anderson, Dr., CLARRC.
Х German Research Centre for Biotechnology, Braunschweig
It is determined for the first time that R. ruber cells synthesize biosurfactants of a glycolipid nature which apart from trehalose dimycolate (C40) have diacyl trehalose (C13-15) and monoacyl trehalose (C10-14), the latter being the major component and having more expressed polarity than that of trehalose monomycolates isolated previously from corynebacteria, mycobacteria and representatives of R. erythropolis. German researchers S. Lang, Prof. and V. Wray, Dr. were involved in the research.
Х HÓdmarket Kereskedeleszervezö ės Vállakozási Kft, Szeged, Hungary
Collaborative research in studying natural hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteriocenoses and effective methods for bioremediation of soils exposed to human activity is carried out in Trans-Danuba territory, Hungary. Different variations of the preparation adapted to particular ecological environments and supplemented with pure cultures of R. erythropolis, R. ruber and Micrococcus luteus are used in the experiments. These biopreparations are capable of degrading heavy paraffins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), tolerant to high concentrations (MIC, 1.2-5.0 mM) of heavy metal salts (Cd, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mo, Pb, Cr, and V) and active in high acidity (pH 2-6) and salinity (NaCl, 5-7%). Stability of functional activity of biodegraders of hydrocarbon compounds is achieved through adsorptive immobilization of bacterial cells on solid organic carriers hydrophobized with a Rhodococcus biosurfactant. These carriers are relatively cheap and available raw materials (in particular, corn cob). When being applied to highly contaminated soils, the technological procedure developed for remediation of oil-contaminated soils allows 75-80 % clean-up efficacy within 4-6 months. The content of residual oil products in the cleaned-up soil does not exceed 1.0 % (w/w). Oil content in soil was analyzed by a weigh method following the chloroform extraction; residual oil products were structurally analyzed by chromatography-mass-spectrometry, while PAHs were analyzed by the rapid detection method developed for these priority contaminants using UV spectrophotometry at 254 and 288 nm. Hungarian partners are D. Szabó Árpád, Dr., and Ambrus Tibor, Dr.
Х World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC)
The Collection of Alkanotrophic Microorganisms is a WFCC member (WFCC # 768, acronym IEGM), entered the World Directory of Collections of Cultures of Microorganisms (WDCCM, Fifth edition. 1999. Eds. H. Sugawara & S. Miyazaki, WFCC-MIRCEN World Data Centre for Microorganisms). In the years of 1996 and 2000 I.B. Ivshina, who contributed her papers to the International Congresses (Veldhoven, Netherland; Brisbane, Australia) was elected a member of the WFCC Executive Board (1996-2000; 2000-2003). In 1999 Prof. Ivshina in her ability as a microbiology expert participated in the International MOSAICC Project УMicroorganisms Sustainable Use and Access Regulation International Code of Conduct У(Brussels, Belgium). In 2000 she was a member of the International Skerman Award Committee in the field of systematics and taxonomy of microorganisms.
Х RAS Presidium Basic Research Programme УBiological DiversityФ. Project: Genotypic and phenetic diversity of actinobacteria inhabiting the anthropogenic ecosystems. 2009-2011.
Х RAS Presidium Basic Research Programme УMolecular and Cell BiologyФ. Project: Biosynthesis mechanisms and functional characteristics of biosurfactants produced by non-pathogenic actinobacteria. 2009-2011.
Х Programme on Interdisciplinary Basic Research carried out in the Ural Branch institutions, RAS within 2009-2011. Project: Development of biocatalytic systems using immobilized Rhodococcus cells and their application in directed transformation of sterols of plant origin. 2009-2011.
Х Russian Federation Foundation for Basic Research 07-04-96038-r_ural_a. Project: Bioconversion of unsound drugs using immobilized Rhodococcus cells. 2007-2009.
Х Russian Federation Foundation for Basic Research 07-04-97612-r_ofi. Project: Development of biocatalysts using immobilized Rhodococcus cells to be applied to the production of biologically active compounds and environmental protection. 2007-2008.
Х NATO ESP.NR.NRCLG 982051. Project: Simplified method for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil. 2006-2007.
Х Special-purpose Interdisciplinary Research Programme on collaboration between Siberian Branch and Far-East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for 2006-2007. Project: Scientific grounds for bioremediation of contaminated soils in moderate and cold climatic zones. 2006-2007.
Х RAS Presidium Basic Research Programme. Molecular and Cell Biology. Project: Biosynthesis of surface-active substances by rhodococci as the way to utilizing hydrophobic substrates. 2006.
Х Federal Special-purpose Programme on Research and Developments in Prioritized Trends of Science and Engineering for 2002-2006. Programme activity 1.12. A system of advanced scientific schools as the source for knowledge generation and training of qualified scientific and training personnel. RI-112/001/290 Project: New biologically active microbial compounds as the basis for novel drug production. 2006.
Х Young Scientists and PhD StudentsТ Grant of the Ural Branch Presidium, RAS. Project: Desorption of oil hydrocarbons and heavy metals using actinobacteria. 2005.
Х Federal Special-purpose Programme on Research and Developments in Prioritized Trends of Science and Engineering for 2002-2006. Programme activity 1.12. A system of advanced scientific schools as the source for knowledge generation and training of qualified scientific and training personnel. RI-112/001/376 Project: New microbial biocatalysts as the basis for novel drug production. 2005.
Х Russian Federation Foundation for Basic Research 04-04-97518-r_ofi. Project: Development of a complex biosurfactant-based biotechnology for cleaning-up of oil-contaminated soils in the Ural region. 2004-2006.
Х Government Contract on scientific-engineering development within the prioritized trend of science and engineering advancement. New Biotechnological Trends and Biosafety. Consumer: the Russian Federation Ministry for Industry and Science. Project: New actinobacterial taxa in the induced synthesis of biologically active substances. 2004.
Х RAS Presidium Programme on Basic Research. Prioritized trend. Scientifically Grounded Conservation of Biodiversity in the Territory of Russia. Trend 7. Genetic grounds for biodiversity conservation. Project: Biosystematic inventory of the collection holdings and novel methods for secured conservation of the diversity of the Regional Specialised Collection of Alkanotrophic Microorganisms. 2003-2005.
Х Special-purpose Interdisciplinary Research Programme on collaboration involving the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Project: Scientific grounds for enhancing natural attenuation of oil-contaminated soils using Rhodococcus biosurfactants. 2003-2005.
Х RAS Presidium Basic Research Programme. Molecular and Cell Biology. Project: Induced biosynthesis of surface-active substances by alkanotrophic rhodococci. 2003-2005.
Х RAS Presidium Basic Research Programme. Basic Principles for Reproduction and Optimization of Plant, Animal and Human Gene Pools. Project: Genetically grounded biosynthesis of surface-active substances by alkanotrophic rhodococci. 2003-2005.
Х Government Contract on scientific-engineering development within the prioritized trend of science and engineering advancement. New Biotechnological Trends and Biosafety. Consumer: the Russian Federation Ministry for Industry and Science. Project: Production of functionally diverse biogenic surfactants. 2003.
Х INTAS 01-2151. Project: New approaches to the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils and crude oil wastes using immobilized hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria. 2002-2005.
Х Federal Special-purpose INTEGRATION Programme on integration of Russian science and higher education for 2002-2006. Subprogramme: Training and Research Complex УRIFEIФ. Project I 0573: Biocatalysts for synthesis of biologically active compounds. 2002-2004.
Х Russian Federation Foundation for Basic Research 04-04-96057-r_a. Project: Oxidative biodegradation of unusable drugs by the genus Rhodococcus actinobacteria. 2001-2004.
Х Russian Federation Foundation for Basic Research 01-04-964661-r_a. Project: The Ural specialised collection of microbial resources: Biotechnological applications of its holding for environmental protection and industry in the Perm region. 2001-2003.
Х Ford Motor Conservation and Environmental Grants. Project: Prevention and control of oil contamination of soil. 2001-2002.
Х Federal Special-purpose INTEGRATION Programme on public support for integration of higher education and basic science for 1997-2000. Trend 1-5. Project: Training and Probation Work of Talented Students at Advanced Scientific Centres. 2000-2001.
Х NATO-ENVIR.ORG 972277. Project: Detection of Rhodococcus Ц foaming agents in activated sludge plants. 2000.
Х Government Contract on scientific-engineering development within the prioritized trend of scientific and technical advancement. New Trends in Biotechnology and Biosafety. Consumer: Russian Federation Ministry for Industry and Science. Contract: Biotransformation of organic compounds using Rhodococcus bacteria. 2000.
Х Identification of cultures isolated from oil-contaminated soil samples taken in Kuban territory. Consumer: Kuban State University, Krasnodar. 2008.
Х Isolation of effective oil-degrading strains and assessment of their possible use in the bioremediation process of oil-containing solid wastes. Consumer: Priroda-Perm Co. Ltd., Perm. 2007.
Х Biological treatment of sludge produced during charcoal activation and contaminated with phenols, oil-products and tarry matters. Consumer: Sorbent Co. Ltd., Perm. 2005.
Х Study of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microflora in samples from subsurface water. Consumer: Inter-industry Research Institute of Ecology of Fuel-energy Complex (Perm). 2005.
Х investigation of natural hydrocarbon-oxidising bacteriocenoses and development of an effective method for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils. Consumer: Hodmarket (Szeged, Hungary) 2004-2006.
Х Microbiological assays of stratal water samples from boreholes at Siberian oil deposit. Consumer: Engineering Research Centre, Perm. 2004.
Х Scientific principles and methods for control of microbiological bioremediation processes occurring in arable soils exposed to gas and oil extraction in the territory of Udmurtia. Consumer: State Research Institute of Agriculture, Udmurtia. 2001-2005.
Х Efficiency assessment of environmentally friendly biosurfactant complex-based fertilizers in rehabilitation of oil-contaminated soils at the waste treatment plant. Consumer: LUKOIL-PermNeft Co. Ltd. 2000-2001.