Federal State Budgetary Scientific Establishment, Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IEGM UB RAS) was organized in 1988 on the basis of the Department of Ecology and Selection of Microorganisms at the Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology of the Ural Scientific Centre of the USSR Academy of Sciences. General direction of the scientific-research work complies with the status determined by the decisions adopted by the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences since the organization of the institute, namely the development of the fundamental issues in general biology, ecology, and genetics of microorganisms. In 1990 the scientific subjects of the Institute was supplemented with the investigations in experimental and ecological immunology. Last years were marked with the intensive developments in molecular biology and biotechnology. The period of investigations from 2004 till 2011 resulted in publication of 15 monographs, 12 study guides, 457 articles in foreign and national journals, 9 Russian Federation Patents, 2 certificates for determination of scientific discovery and 7 certificates for intellectual product. Currently the staff of the Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms comprises 153 members. The scientific investigations involve the activity of 56 collaborators, including 1 Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 2 Corresponding Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 12 Doctors of Science, and 45 PhDs. The Institute suggests the study in post-graduate courses specializing in «Microbiology», and «Clinical Immunology and Allergology». In 2001 the IEGM organized doctorate courses specializing in «Microbiology», «Clinical Immunology and Allergology». 16 individuals have successfully completed the education in post-graduate courses and defended their dissertations within recent 5 years, and in 2009-2011 another 7 ones. The Dissertation Council DM004.019.01 for specialties: 03.02.03 «Microbiology» (biological and medical sciences); 14.03.09 «Clinical Immunology and Allergology» (medical sciences) is organized in the Institute, where in 2004-2011 7 doctoral theses and 64 PhD theses were made under direct leadership and consultancy of leading scientific workers of the Institute and successfully defended. The Institute in cooperation with Perm State National Research University has organized the Institutional-Academic Chair of Microbiology and Immunology and in cooperation with Perm State Medical Academy established the Chair of Immunology both of which are successfully working.