Modified Desolvation Method Enables Simple One-Step Synthesis of Gelatin Nanoparticles from Different Gelatin Types with Any Bloom Values
Gelatin nanoparticles found numerous applications in drug delivery, bioimaging, immunotherapy, and vaccine development as well as in biotechnology and food science. Synthesis of gelatin nanoparticles is usually made by a two-step desolvation method, which, despite providing stable and homogeneous nanoparticles, has many limitations, namely complex procedure, low yields, and poor reproducibility of the first desolvation step. Herein, we present a modified one-step desolvation method, which enables the quick, simple, and reproducible synthesis of gelatin nanoparticles. Using the proposed method one can prepare gelatin nanoparticles from any type of gelatin with any bloom number, even with the lowest ones, which remains unattainable for the traditional two-step technique. The method relies on quick one-time addition of poor solvent (preferably isopropyl alcohol) to gelatin solution in the absence of stirring. We applied the modified desolvation method to synthesize nanoparticles from porcine, bovine, and fish gelatin with bloom values from 62 to 225 on the hundreds-of-milligram scale. Synthesized nanoparticles had average diameters between 130 and 190 nm and narrow size distribution. Yields of synthesis were 62–82% and can be further increased. Gelatin nanoparticles have good colloidal stability and withstand autoclaving. Moreover, they were non-toxic to human immune cells.